Chemistry

Periodic and Aperiodic Properties (continued)


It is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons. It is very characteristic of nonmetals.

Linus Pauling, through experiments, tried to quantify this trend and created an electronegativity scale. This scale exists in many periodic tables.

Electronegativity increases as the atomic radius decreases. The larger the atomic radius, the less the nucleus will attract the farther electrons, and the lower the electronegativity.

In the periodic table, noble gases are not considered as they have no tendency to gain or lose electrons. They are already stabilized.

Electronegativity increases in families from the bottom up and, in periods, from left to right.

The most electronegative element is fluorine (F), with electronegativity value 3,98.

It is the tendency of an atom to lose electrons. It is very characteristic of metals. It can also be called metallic character. It is the inverse of electronegativity.

Electropositivity increases as the atomic radius increases.

The larger the atomic radius, the less the nucleus will be attracted to the farthest electron, the easier the atom is to donate electrons, and the greater the electropositivity.

Noble gases are not considered either because of their stability.

Electropositivity increases in families from top to bottom and, in periods, from right to left.

The most electropositive element is francium (Fr), which has electronegativity 0.70.

Electronegativity Table

Look at the table, remembering that the smallest value is the most positive.

Elements

Electronegativity

F

3,98

O

3,44

Cl

3,16

N

3,04

Br

2,96

I

2,66

s

2,58

Ç

2,55

Noble metals

2.54 to 2.28

H

2,20

P

2,19

Semimetals

2.04 to 1.18

Common metals

2.20 to 0.79

Fr

0,70

It is the amount of energy released when an isolated atom in its ground state (gas phase) receives 1é.

An isolated atom in its ground state can receive 1e, becoming an anion. This can lead to a more stable state of the atom and then the release of energy occurs.

Electronic affinity increases as the atomic radius decreases. It is important for nonmetals. The most electromagnetic elements are halogens and oxygen.

Electroaffinity in the periodic table increases in families from bottom to top and periods from left to right.

Their values ​​are given in Kj / mol and are very difficult to measure.

It is an aperiodic property. The specific heat of the solid state element always decreases with increasing atomic number.

Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of the element to 1 ° C.