The only modification an atom can undergo without high release and / or energy absorption reactions is the loss or gain of electrons.
This is why a body is called neutral if it has an equal number of protons and electrons, causing the electric charge on the body to be zero.
By the same analogy we can define positively and negatively electrified bodies.
A negatively electrified body has more electrons than protons, causing the electric charge on the body to be negative.
A positively electrified body has more protons than electrons, making the electrical charge on the body positive.
There is often confusion about positively charged bodiesmainly, since it is plausible to think that for the body to have a positive electric charge, it must receive a positive electric charge, that is, gain protons.
When in fact a body is positively charged if it loses electrons, leaving less negative electric charge.
So that during calculations you will not be confused, remember that physics seen at the high school level studies only elementary and everyday reactions, such as the movement of electrons. The reactions where intranuclear particles (neutrons and protons) can be modified are studied in the part of science known as nuclear physics.
Electrifying a body basically means making the number of protons and electrons different (by adding or reducing the number of electrons).
We can define the electrical charge of a body (Q) by the relation:
Q = Electric charge, measured in coulomb in SI
n = quantity of elementary charges, which is a dimensionless quantity and always have integer value (n = 1, 2, 3, 4…)
e = elemental electric charge ()
Electrostatics is basically described by two principles, the attraction and repulsion of charges according to their signal (equal signals repel each other and opposite signals attract each other) and the conservation of electric charges, which ensures that in an isolated system, the sum of all Existing loads will always be constant, ie no losses.